If someone is unfamiliar with your research data what would she/he need in order to find, evaluate, understand and reuse them?
Metadata is structured information about information - e.g. about research data. Any data file in any format should have metadata fields as without metadata the data sets are meaningless.
Metadata can broadly be broken into
The main purpose of metadata is to improve finding of research data and therefore it should be standardized, structured and machine and human readable. Metadata should be collected during the research process and the responsible person for metadata is the researcher.
Avoin tiede ja tutkimus: Oikeuksien hallintaan liittyvät metatiedot ovat avoimuudessa avainasemassa
Avoin tiede ja tutkimus: Oikeuksien hallintaan liittyvät metatiedot -selvitys
DataCite Metadata Schema - which is closely connected to the DOI system - is a list of core metadata properties chosen for the identification of a resource.
Metadata Standards by Subject / Research Data Alliance RDA
Vocabularies, ontologies and classifications
ELSST - a multilingual thesaurus
Finto: Finnish service for the publication and utilization of vocabularies, ontologies and classifications.
Climate and forecast
Ecology and evolution: Standard file formats in ecology and evolution
Software engineering and interfaces, data presentation, data communication, data interchange and archiving by physical media, access systems and interconnection, wireless proximity systems, multimedia
Statistical and social science data
Create a a readme file for the information about a data file and for ensuring that the data can be correctly interpreted. Prefer standards-based metadata if available. Consider:
Title: Name of the dataset or research project that produced it.
Creator: Names and addresses of the organization or people who created the data.
Identifier: Number used to identify the data, even if it is just an internal project reference number.
Subject: Keywords or phrases describing the subject or content of the data.
Funders: Organizations or agencies who funded the research.
Rights: Any known intellectual property rights held for the data.
Access information: Where and how your data can be accessed by other researchers. More e.g. in Avoin tiede ja tutkimus -hanke. Oikeuksien hallintaan liittyvät metatiedot -selvitys (in Finnish only)
Language : Language(s) of the intellectual content of the resource, when applicable.
Dates: Key dates associated with the data, including: project start and end date; release date; time period covered by the data; and other dates associated with the data lifespan, e.g., maintenance cycle, update schedule.
Location: Where the data relates to a physical location, record information about its spatial coverage.
Methodology: How the data was generated, including equipment or software used, experimental protocol, other things one might include in a lab notebook.
Data processing: Along the way, record any information on how the data has been altered or processed.
Sources: Citations to material for data derived from other sources, including details of where the source data is held and how it was accessed.
List of file names: List of all data files associated with the project, with their names and file extensions (e.g. 'NWPalaceTR.WRL', 'stone.mov').
File Formats: Format(s) of the data, e.g. FITS, SPSS, HTML, JPEG, and any software required to read the data.
File structure: Organization of the data file(s) and the layout of the variables, when applicable.
Variable list: List of variables in the data files, when applicable.
Code lists: Explanation of codes or abbreviations used in either the file names or the variables in the data files (e.g. '999 indicates a missing value in the data').
Versions: Date/time stamp for each file, and use a separate ID for each version (see file organization). Read e.g.
Checksums: To test if your file has changed over time (see data backup)
Source: MIT Libraries