When you use different ranking lists as aids in assessment, you should always note the evaluation methods that have been used in compiling the lists. All lists have different emphases that will always inevitably favour some organisations, either because of their size or because of the disciplines represented in the organisation.
Ranking lists normalize numerical values making them comparable. Eg. most ranking lists normalize citations taking into account the size and discipline of an institution,
|Rankinglist||Scopus||Web of Science|
|QS World University Rankings||x|
|Shanghai Ranking Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU||x|
|Times Higher Education World University Ranking (THE)||x (from 2015)||x (until 2014)|
|CWTS Leiden Ranking||x|
|CWTS Leiden Ranking||481||485||435||475|
|QS World University Rankings||411-420||411-420||358||259|
|Shanghai Ranking Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)||401-500||401-500||301-400||301-400|
|Times Higher Education World University Ranking (THE)||251-300||201-250||201-250||351-400||-|
|QS World University Rankings||6/10||8/10||7/9||4/9|
|Shanghai Ranking Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)||3-5 / 5||3-5 / 5||2-3||2-3|
|Times Higher Education World University Ranking (THE)||4/7||2-3 / 9||2-3 / 9||4-6 / 9||-|
|QS World University Rankings||geography||dentistry||dentistry|
|Shanghai Ranking Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)||-||-||-||clinical medicine and pharmacy|
|Times Higher Education World University Ranking (THE)||arts & humanities||computer science||computer science|
The most well know ranking list of world universities is the Shanghai Ranking aka Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). More than 1200 universities are actually ranked by ARWU every year and the best 500 are published. The highest scoring institution is assigned a score of 100, and other institutions are calculated as a percentage of the top score. Ranking is released in August.
Rankings by Field or Subject are also calculated: Natural Sciences and Mathematics (SCI), Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences (ENG), Life and Agriculture Sciences (LIFE), Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy (MED), Social Sciences (SOC).
52 subject areas (http://www.shanghairanking.com/Shanghairanking-Subject-Rankings/index.html)
Data sources are Web of Science database, http://nobelprize.org/, http://www.mathunion.org/index.php?id=prizewinners and http://www.highlycited.com/
See the full methodology in http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU-Methodology-2017.html.
Lähde: http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU-Methodology-2016.html [10.10.2016].
Times Higher Education World University Rankings is published by the UK Times Higher Education Supplement (THE). Ranking lists are since 2011. There is almost 1000 universities in the list. Partnership with Elsevier and the Scopus database started 2015, and in year 2016 books and book chapters were included in the analysis for the first time. Before that the publication data was gathered from the Web of Science database. Ranking is released usually in September.
Rankings by subject: Arts & humanities, Business & Economics, Clinical, pre-clinical & health, Computer Science, Engineering & technology, Life sciences, Physical sciences, Social sciences. Overall methodology is carefully recalibrated for each subject, with the weightings changed to suit the individual fields.
See the full methodology in https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/methodology-world-university-rankings-2016-2017.
Source: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/methodology-world-university-rankings-2016-2017 [22.9.2016].
QS World University Rankings is a ranking list of scientific achievement published by Quacquarelli Symonds. Rankings are from 2012. Citation data is based on Scopus data. It ranks almost 1000 universities of nearly 4000 assessed. Ranking is published usually in September. Rankings by subject and by faculty (arts & humanities, engineering & technology, life sciences & medicine, natural sciences, social sciences & management). Methodology in detail: http://www.topuniversities.com/qs-world-university-rankings/methodology.
Source: http://www.iu.qs.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/ [13.9.2016].
National Taiwan University Ranking employs bibliometric methods to analyze and rank the scientific paper performances, quantity (25%) and quality (75%), of the world’s top 500 universities. It was named HEAACT years 2007-2011. Data sources are Essential Science Indicators (ESI), Web of Science Core Collection ( SCI and SSCI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Humanities (A&HCI, arts and humanities citation index) is not included. Rankings are also published by field and by subject. Ranking is released usually in October.
The full methodology: http://nturanking.lis.ntu.edu.tw/BackgroundMethodology/Methodology-enus.aspx.
Source: http://nturanking.lis.ntu.edu.tw/BackgroundMethodology/Methodology-enus.aspx [10.10.2016].
The URAP ranking list has been published since 2010 by the Middle East Technical University. Publications constitute the basis of the ranking methodology. Data source is Web of Science database. URAP ranking includes 2000 higher education institutes. Lists are also by country, region and field. Methodology: http://www.urapcenter.org/2016/methodology.php?q=1. Source:http://www.urapcenter.org/2016/methodology.php?q=3 [14.10.2016; percentiles added].
U.S. News & World Report's Best Global Universities Rankings was released for the first time in 2014. Rankings are powered by Thomson Reuters (Web of Science database). In year 2016 books and conferences were added to the ranking methodology. Rankings are also by country, region and subject. Ranking is usually released in October. Methodology: http://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/articles/methodology.
The CWTS Leiden Ranking measures the scientific performance of 500 major universities worldwide. Using a sophisticated set of bibliometric indicators, the ranking aims to provide highly accurate measurements of the scientific impact of universities and of universities’ involvement in scientific collaboration. Ranking is based on Web of Science. Ranking is usually released in May. Methodology: http://www.leidenranking.com/information/indicators.
European Research Ranking (http://www.researchranking.org/), ER-Rank, is based on the freely and publicly available data on European research projects which have been funded by the European Commission during the past years. This data is taken from the CORDIS database which has been published via the internet by the European Commission at http://cordis.europa.eu/. A minimum of 5 projects per year is required to calculate the rank of an individual institution. Methodology: http://www.researchranking.org/index.php?action=method.
U-Multirank http://www.u-multirank.eu/ is a multidimensional, user-driven approach to international ranking of higher education institutions. It compares the performances of higher education institutions – in short: universities – in the five broad dimensions of university activity: (1) teaching and learning, (2) research, (3) knowledge transfer, (4) international orientation and (5) regional engagement. The U-Multirank web tool enables comparisons at the level of the university as a whole and at the level of specific fields of study (http://www.u-multirank.eu/#!/compare?trackType=compare&sightMode=undefined§ion=compareSwitch). Bibliometric analysis are based on Web of Science database. Methodology: http://www.u-multirank.eu/#!/about/methodology/data-sources.
Webometrics eli Ranking Web of World Universities evaluates universities on the basis of their web presence and activity:
Wikipedia Ranking of World Universities "We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the Wikipedia Ranking of World Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60 percent overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history." Lähde: http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.09021.