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History and culture: Scientific

Referencing electronic resources

When using works (e.g. journal article, e-book) obtained from academic research databases or platforms, APA style rules are:

  • do not include the database or platform name
  • do not include URLs
  • include a DOI if the work has one
  • if a work does not have a DOI, treat the work as a print version.

Web citations require much of the same information as print sources, but also provide the location of an online source:

1. Permanent identifier, etc. DOI, URN, Handle, or permalink.
Search for DOI:

2. Reference to web archive, Internet Archive or Memento, either existing version or version archived by you.

3. Avoid using the URL.

Source and more information in Finnish: Hakala, J. (2017). E-viittaamisen ihanuus ja kurjuus. Informaatiotutkimus, 36(2), s. 77–85.



RefWorks is an online tool to manage your references.

Using RefWorks you can:
- create a personal database for storing records
- insert citations while writing
- create a bibliography
- share information with other researchers

New RefWorks guides:
- New RefWorks
- New RefWorks YouTube Channel

Legacy RefWorks guides:
- Introduction to RefWorks
- RefWorks YouTubeChannel

Entering citation information manually into RefWorks

Articles in edited works are rarely found in databases. You have to add the citation information into RefWorks manually or you can edit book details:

1a. Complete the book article entry manually (Create new reference). Or:
1b. Export a book record to RefWorks and edit it (Edit).
2. Select the reference type (Ref Type) = Book Section.
3. Enter information in the fields displayed:
- Title = article title
- Authors = author name(s) (Last name, First name)
- Publish Date = publication year of the book
- Editors = book editor name(s) (Last name, First name)
- Book Title = book title
- Pages = page numbers of the article *
- Publisher = book publisher
- Place of Publication = publication place of the book.
4. Save reference (Save).
* Press the Alt key and enter 0150 on the numeric keypad to create a dash between numbers.

Finalized bachelor's / master's thesis

Research methods

Good scientific practice