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Economic Sciences and Business Studies: Scientific writing

Things to know

Start using a reference management tool from the beginning of your information retrieval for a seminar paper or a thesis or a research topic. Your references will stay in order and it will be easy to create a bibliography.

Referencing electronic resources

When using works (e.g. journal article, e-book) obtained from academic research databases or platforms, APA style rules are:

  • do not include the database or platform name
  • do not include URLs
  • include a DOI if the work has one
  • if a work does not have a DOI, treat the work as a print version.

Material without page numbers

  • Provide a heading, section name, or paragraph number.
  • For ebook chapters without pagination, omit the page range from the reference.

Web citations require much of the same information as print sources, but also provide the location of an online source:

1. Permanent identifier, etc. DOI, URN, Handle, or permalink.
Search for DOI:

2. Reference to web archive, Internet Archive or Memento, either existing version or version archived by you.

3. Avoid using the URL.

Source and more information in Finnish: Hakala, J. (2017). E-viittaamisen ihanuus ja kurjuus. Informaatiotutkimus, 36(2), s. 77–85. https://doi.org/10.23978/inf.65190

Submit your thesis

SUBMIT YOUR COMPLETED THESIS WITH LATURI

Laturi is the University of Oulu's electronic thesis submission system. It allows you to submit your thesis online for approval and archiving. The system will be introduced in early 2013.

Reference management

Help in scientific writing

Publishing research results

Evaluation based on academic publishing

Copyright

Help in information searching

Get help in seeking information on your subject.
Ask about the databases, e-books, articles or reference management.
Email:  informationservice(at)oulu.fi

Good scientific practice

The Urkund system is a software for the checking of bibliographic references and prevention of plagiarism

Correct Finnish usage