Finding scientific information: Reference list

Reference list (bibliography)

The reference list contains all the references that has been cited in the text.

These examples show how to write references according to the APA 6th (American Psychological Association) -style. Always find out which reference style you are supposed to use.

Citing electronic and online sources

Include also the access information when citing an electronic source:

  • When available, use DOI, URN, Handle or a permalink. DOI-link format for a citations is[DOI code]. You can search the DOI for example in Crossref.
  •  Internet Archive or Memento.
  • URL-address


Aivelo, T. (2018, January 18). Miksi plagiointi on väärin? [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Hakala, J. (2017). E-viittaamisen ihanuus ja kurjuus. Informaatiotutkimus, 36(2), pp. 77–85.

Sähkökirjoihin viittaaminen (n.d.). Retrieved from


Bennett, D. (2005). The art of precast concrete: Colour, texture, expression. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Ympäristöministeriö. (2016). Eläköön lähiö! : 22 reseptiä lähiöelämään. Helsinki: Ympäristöministeriö.


Merchant, G. (2017). Hands, Fingers and iPads. In C. Burnett, G. Merchant, A. Simpson & M. Walsh (Eds.), The Case of the iPad: Mobile literacies in education (pp. 245-256). Singapore: Springer.

Valtonen, T., Sointu, E. T., Kukkonen, J., Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S., Ahonen, A., . . . Mäkitalo-Siegl, K. (2017). Insights into Finnish first-year pre-service teachers' twenty-first century skills. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2055-2069.

Conference proceedings

Katz, I., Gabayan, K. & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu & P. Scheunders (Eds..), Lecture notes in Computer Science: Vol 4678. Advanced concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97-108). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Viitanen, K., & Reiman, T. (2017, June). Building an adaptive safety culture in a nuclear construction project - insights to safety practitioners. Paper presented at the 7th Resilience Engineering International Symposium, Liège, Belgium. Retrieved from


Tiiro, A. (2018). Effect of visual realism on cybersickness in virtual reality (Master's thesis). Retrieved from

Patents and standards

Kinnunen, H. & Nissilä, S. (2001). Finnish patent FI20000522. Helsinki: Finnish patent and registration office.

Kinnunen, H. & Nissilä, S. (2001). U.S. Patent US2001023320. Retrieved from

International Organization for Standardization. (2016). Occupational health and safety management systems—Requirements with guidance for use (ISO/DIS Standard No. 45001). Retrieved from


Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

Karttakeskus (2014). Hevonkack ja muita alatyylisiä paikannimiä Suomesta [Map]. Helsinki: Karttakeskus.