- generates new information in relation to existing publications
- is presented in a form that allows the research results to be verified and/or used in a new study
- is available to all interested researchers
- must have an evaluation practice in place, whereby the text intended for publication is evaluated by at least one external party familiar with the field (peer review) or by an editorial board
- is typically structured in basic order, IMRD: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion.
- has a bibliography (reference list).
The different publication types are listed according to the publication speed of the information: