|Finding variations of a word
The singular form of a word finds also the plural form.
Basic form of a verb finds also common verb forms: -ed, -es, ja -ing. British and American spellings are searched automatically.
foot retrieves foot ja feet
circuit retrieves circuit, circuits, circuited, circuiting
Phrase in quotation marks = exact phrase
- wildcards cannot be used
“surface acoustic wave filter”
Phrase using a proximity operator:
NEAR/0 (capital letters) words in any order
|resistance ONEAR/0 amplifier|
|Operators||Boolean operators (capital letters) AND, OR, NOT||heart AND rate
heart rate retrieves heart AND rate
Proximity operators (capital letters)
NEAR/n : words in any order, n ≥ 0
ONEAR/n : words in the given order, n ≥ 0
signal NEAR/1 isolation
Order of precedence rules
Advanced Search: the search boxes are processed from top downward
Command Search: the search query is processed from left to right
|Tips||Use Command Search for multiple operations.|
|Links||An example for using Advanced Search is below this table.|
As an example search, information is needed about satellite systems’ signals and timing by using the atomic clocks. Let’s form the following search string:
(gps* OR glonass* OR galileo* OR "satellite system" OR "satellite systems") AND signal* AND ("atomic clock" OR "atomic clocks" OR "atom clock" OR "atom clocks" OR tim*)
This search can be executed by using the command search as follows:
The search result is 3916 references by using the command search.
Problems in Advanced Keyword/Phrases search
This kind of search is quite complicated and it will cause problems in Advanced Keyword/Phrases search.
Next the search about satellite systems’ signals and timing by using the atomic clocks will be done periodically by using the Keyword/Phrases search.
First form the search string for searching the different satellite systems:
gps* OR glonass* OR galileo* OR "satellite system" OR "satellite systems"
This string gives the result above (17 640).
Next the term “signal” (with truncation) will be added to the search.
This changes the search result from 17 640 references to 10 098 references.
Until this there is no problem with the search. Advanced Keyword/phrases search could be used in multiple-row searches if there are not many search terms elsewhere than in the first row.
Next the search string: "atomic clock" OR "atomic clocks" OR "atom clock" OR "atom clocks" OR tim* will be added to the search. As a search result, this string gives 735 441 references alone.
Instead of decreasing the quantity of references the search result increased to 735 428 references. The reason for this is in the search string that realizes the search:
((gps* OR glonass* OR galileo* OR "satellite system" OR "satellite systems")
AND "atomic clock" | OR "atomic clocks" OR "atom clock" OR "atom clocks" OR tim*
The search executed right in the first and in the second row. In the third row term ”atomic clock” is combined to the search with AND. Other terms on the row are divided by OR operators because there are no parentheses in this row. The search realizes if it involves one of the terms "atomic clocks", "atom clock", "atom clocks" andtim*
Next the parentheses are added on the third row.
("atomic clock" OR "atomic clocks" OR "atom clock" OR "atom clocks" OR tim*)
The search string looks correct but the search result is still the same 735 428 references as before adding the parentheses. Even parentheses are shown in the search string they aren’t involved in executing the search. So it is possible to use Keyword/Phrases search in simple and clear searches but it is better to use the command search for complex searches.