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Database quick guides: Scopus


Database guide: Scopus

Truncation and wildcard


* replaces 0...n characters anywhere in a word


? replaces a single character anywhere in a word

- can be used to search the alternative spellings of the same word

> products, production, producting, producted, productive

> neurobehavior, biobehavioural

organi?ation = organisation = organization


Plurals and possessives

The singular form of a word finds also the plural form and possessive forms of most words.

Any form finds other forms.

> steel, steels

> child, child's, children, children's

> child, child's, children, children's

> foot, feet

Hyphenated words

Hyphenated form finds hyphenated and non-hyphenated forms.

Non-hyphenated form is treated as separate words.

Some hyphenated words are also written combined. With these you must use OR operator.

> talk-show, talk show, talk-shows, talk shows

= talk-show OR "talk show" OR "talk shows"

non-formal OR nonformal


1) double quotation marks

- wildcards can be used

- the singular form of a word finds also the plural form of most words

"criminal* insan*"

"financial technology" 
financial technology, financial technologies

2) braces = exact search

- find documents that contain exactly that enclosed in braces

- wildcards are searched as actual characters: * is searched as asterisk, not as a truncation

- the singular form of a word does not retrieve the plural form

> out-of-hospital

{out of hospital}
> out of hospita

{to be or not to be?}
> to be or not to be?

Boolean operators

- are not case sensitive

Terms in the same search field are processed as an AND operation. wind power
= wind AND power

Without parentheses operator precedence is:

  1. OR
  2. W/n, PRE/n
  3. AND
  4. AND NOT
Use parentheses to override operator precedence. The expression inside the parentheses is executed first.

finland or finnish and pisa
= (finland or finnish) and pisa



(wind AND power) OR (solar AND energy)  

Proximity operators

- for two or more words that occur within a specified number of words (or fewer) of each other

- truncation is possible

- you can use parentheses to multiply terms

W/n regardless of the order, n ≥ 0

energy w/2 polic*

robot* w/1 (hand OR arm)

PRE/n in the order in which you entered them, n ≥ 0

heart PRE/0 attack = "heart attack"

cable pre/1 television

(robot* w/2 hand) OR (robot* pre/3 arm)

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More information: Scopus

Evaluation based on scientific publishing guide: