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Instructions for publishing in the series Acta Universitatis Ouluensis: - APA

APA citation style (APA 6th - American Psychological Association, 6th Edition)

You are advised to use the APA citation style when you publish in the series Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. Please note that the numbered reference system and footnotes are not used in APA style.

In-text citations and list of references

In-text citations

Citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses. Use always page numbers with direct quotations.
If a direct quotation is longer than 40 words, indent the paragraph (for the Acta series use style "Block Text 2").
In-text citation in indent paragraphs: xxxxxxxx. (Author, year, pages)
In other cases: xxxx (Author, year, pages). 


Citing whole paragraph

If you cite the whole book or article, do not include page numbers.

Page numbers are included when citing an image, table or detailed information.

APA also encourages authors to include page numbers in other than direct quotations when it helps the reader to locate the relevant passage. If the cited material does not have page numbers, use a paragraph number. More information here.

For more detailed instructions see: Basics of APA style Citing References in Text (15/26)


APA - in-text citations


List of references


Use hanging indent.

If you are citing more than seven authors: after the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names, then add the final author name. There are no more then seven names.

For more detailed instructions see: Basics of APA style (17/26-) The Reference List.

NB: For those who publish in the Acta series: When you import a reference list from RefWorks to Word template, select the entire reference list and apply style "Endnote Text". Please note that if you apply the style more than once, you will lose APA style italicization in the list of references. After this, you will have to add italics manually using the Microsoft Word character style "Emphasis".

Reference List

Here are some examples of how to use different types of references in a reference list using the APA 6th (American Psychological Association) citation style in texts written in English. The author must always ensure that the in-text citations and the reference list follow the practice of the community or publication for which the publication is intended.

Further information:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association (pp. 193-224).

When you cite a book, the reference list should include the following bibliographic information:

  • Name of author or editor
    • editor's name is followed by (ed.) or corresponding abbreviation
    • organizational authors' names are given in the same form as they appear in the publication, with the main organization listed first and the suborganization after that
    • if there is no personal or organizational author, the reference starts with the title of the publication
  • Year of publication. When no year of publication is indicated, use the copyright year or (n.d.), meaning "no date".
  • Title of the publication
  • Edition information is always included, when the publication is other than first edition
    • in the form it appears in the publication
  • Publication series, if the publication has been published in a series
  • Publisher
  • Place of publication
    • if more than one place of publication is given, include only the first one

Bennett, D. (2005). The art of precast concrete: Colour, texture, expression. Basel: Birkhäuser.
Ympäristöministeriö. (2016). Eläköön lähiö! : 22 reseptiä lähiöelämään. Helsinki: Ympäristöministeriö.

Author, A. A. (2017). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Author, A. A. (2017). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx
Author, A. A. (2017). Title of work.
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (2017). Title of work. Location: Publisher.




How to add a chapter from an edited book to RefWorks?

  • Use the book section citation type. Use the title and author of the chapter as the section title. Include the author(s), editors and book title, as well.

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (2017). Title of article. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp. 111). Location: Publisher.

Merchant, G. (2017). Hands, Fingers and iPads. In C. Burnett, G. Merchant, A. Simpson & M. Walsh (Eds.), The Case of the iPad: Mobile literacies in education (pp. 245256). Singapore: Springer.

There is slight variation in the way articles in journals and edited books are entered.

  • Names of authors (no more than seven authors)
  • Year of publication
  • Publications in print are followed by the text "(in print)" or "(in press)", manuscripts by "(manuscript)"
  • Article title
  • Information about the journal or publication in which the article has been published
    • in the case of an article in a book, include the word "In" before the title of the book
  • For periodicals, include volume and issue number
  • Pages on which the article appears

journal article
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225229.

eight or more authors
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, F. J., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6(2), 249267.

journal article without DOI
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. Sensoria: A Journal of Mind, Brain & Culture, 2(2), 3848. Retrieved from

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal 8(1), 7382.

Woods, R. K. (in press). Technique for myocardial protection in pulmonary atresia intact ventricular septum. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Manuscript in preparation.

submitted for publication
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Manuscript submitted for publication.

         article in edited book

Merchant, G. (2017). Hands, Fingers and iPads. In C. Burnett, G. Merchant, A. Simpson & M. Walsh (Eds.), The Case of the iPad: Mobile literacies in education (pp. 245256). Singapore: Springer.


Conference presentations are often published in books or periodicals. If there are no conference proceedings, include the authors and the title of the presentation, followed by the name and place of the conference.

Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P.
Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97108). /10.1007/978-3-540-74607-2_9

Viitanen, K., & Reiman, T. (2017, June). Building an adaptive safety culture in a nuclear construction project - insights to safety practitioners. Paper presented at the 7th Resilience Engineering International Symposium, Liège, Belgium. Retrieved from

Include author, time of publication, title and publication channel.

Tiiro, A. (2018). Effect of visual realism on cybersickness in virtual reality (Master's thesis, University of Oulu). Retrieved from

Oikarinen, E. (2018). Perspectives on humor in recruitment advertising on the Internet (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oulu). Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. G, Oeconomica, 97. Retrieved from

For patents, include the names of the inventor(s), effective year, country and patent number. In text, cite the patent number, not the names of the inventors, e.g. (Finnish patent FI20000522, 2001)

Kinnunen, H. & Nissilä, S. (2001). Finnish patent FI20000522. Helsinki: Finnish patent and registration office.
Kinnunen, H. & Nissilä, S. (2001). U.S. Patent US2001023320. Retrieved from

For standards, include the standardizing organization and year, as well as the title and identifier of the standard. An example of an in-text citation: (International Organization for Standardization, 2016).

International Organization for Standardization. (2016). Occupational health and safety management systems—Requirements with guidance for use (ISO/DIS Standard No. 45001). Retrieved from 

For maps, include the title of the map and possible map series; if the cartographer's name is given, enter it as the author. If there are user-defined locations in online maps, enter them in square brackets.

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Ingolstadt, Germany, to Geneva, Switzerland]. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

Karttakeskus (2014). Hevonkack ja muita alatyylisiä paikannimiä Suomesta [Map]. Helsinki: Karttakeskus.

In text

When citing an act, use its official abbreviation (you have to specify the act when it appears for the first time in your text), chapter, section and subsection. Example (KPL 3:9.2 §)

You can check the correct spelling of abbreviations of acts and decrees in the Finlex and Edilex databases, or in the printed books Suomen Laki or Suomen säädöskokoelma. For example on

In reference list

Kirjanpitolaki 30.12.1997/1336.


The APA style has been applied in this example.

When you cite electronic sources, you must indicate how to access them. You may leave links active.
  • Use a permanent link if possible, for example DOI, URN, Handle or so-called permalink. Create a link from a DOI as follows:[DOI identifier.] Use the Crossref service to find out the DOI of a publication.
  • Reference to a source in an online archive, for example Internet Archive or Memento, either an existing one or one uploaded by you.
  • URL address

Aivelo, T. (2018, January 18). Miksi plagiointi on väärin? [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Hakala, J. (2017). E-viittaamisen ihanuus ja kurjuus. Informaatiotutkimus, 36(2), pp. 77–85.

Sähkökirjoihin viittaaminen (n.d.). Retrieved from

Use hanging indent.

If you are citing more than seven authors: after the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names, then add the final author name. There are no more then seven names.


Aliev, M. R., & Watson, J. (1985). Higher-order effects in the vibration-rotation spectra of semirigid molecules. In K. N. Rao (Ed.), Molecular spectroscopy: Modern research (pp. 167). Orlando: Academic Press.

HART Communication Foundation. (2009, December 22). Wireless hart. Retrieved from

Mitra, S. K. (1991). Some unconventional signal processing applications of multirate techniques. Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 1, 1316.

Paulson, M. (1992). Basement membrane proteins: Structure, assembly, and cellular interactions. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 27(12), 9327.

Paulsson, M., Saladin, K., & Landwehr, R. (1988). Binding of Ca2+ influences susceptibility of laminin to proteolytic digestion and interactions between domain-specific laminin fragments. European Journal of Biochemistry, 177(3), 477481.

The Royal Mardsen Hospital Bone-Marrow Transplantation Team. (1977). Failure of syngeneic bone-marrow graft without preconditioning in post-hepatitis marrow aplasia. Lancet, 310(8041), 742744.

Watson, M. A. J. (1985). Higher-order effects in the vibration-rotation spectra of semirigid molecules. Molecular Spectroscopy: Modern Research, 3, 1.

Yonkers, K. A., Ramin, S. M., Rush, A. J., Navarrete, C. A., Carmody, T., March, D., . . . Leveno, K. J. (2001). Onset  and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(11), 18561863.

Zar, J. H. (1984). Biostatistical Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.